Nicotine dependence and visceral adiposity as risk factors for the development and severity of carotid artery stenosis
قاسم شرهان حرج
Authors : Mahmood Shaker Khazaal, Farqad Bader Hamdan, Qasim Sharhan Al-Mayah
Nicotine dependence (ND) and visceral adiposity are emerging as independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including carotid artery stenosis (CAS). This study aimed to determine the relationship between ND and the contribution of abdominal fat to the onset of CAS, which is indicated by a luminal narrowing of at least 60% as determined by duplex and/or Doppler ultrasound. We prospectively collected data from 60 patients with CAS and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), a common research tool, was used in the study. The original questionnaire was designed to gather social and demographic data. Anthropometric measurements, visceral adiposity index (VAI), and lipid accumulation products (LAP) were used to assess obesity. Most patients showed a high or mild-moderate degree of ND: 46.67% and 35%, respectively. The median visceral adiposity index (VAI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) in patients was 3.92 and 32.83, respectively. Prolonged smoking duration, increased intensity, and high ND are hallmarks of CAS patients

(FULL ARTICLE LINK) Read more ...